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1. Materials Compatibility :

  • Between Fuel and Coolant
    • Fuel-coolant chemical reactions, source term release from fuel to coolant
  • Between Fuel and Cladding
    • Fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) is one of the major cladding degradation of advance metallic fuel because of the chemical reactions between nuclear fuel/fission products and stainless steel cladding
  • Between Coolant and Cladding/Structural Materials
    • Material degradation and corrosion by coolant, for example, Nickel-based alloys can not be used as structrural materials for liquid-lead/lead-bismuth-cooled reactor because the high solubility of Ni in the liquid metal/alloy
  • Between Fuel Pin Gap materials and Fuel
    • Liquid lead can not be used as gap material for oxide fuel, because of the transfer of oxygen
Illustration 1

2. Nuclear Fuel Cycle :

  • Used Fuel Dry Storage
    • Canister degradation, cladding hydrogen embrittlement
  • Electrochemical Separation
    • Used Metal fuel, oxide fuel and nitride fuel treatment
  • Molten salt reactor (MSR) on-line purification
    • Coolant impurity removal
  • Advanced Nuclear Coolant Chemistry Control
    • Oxygen control in Liquid metal, Redox control in molten salt
Illustration 2

3. Nuclear Coolants:

  • Liquid metal (Na, Pb, Pb-Bi)
    • Corrosion (loop global corrosion, local corrosion, etc)
    • Interactions with fuel (Material release from the fuel)
    • Chemistry control (oxygen control)
    • Source term release (solubility measurement, thermodynamic properties, transport in the coolant, retention capability)
  • Molten Salt (Chloride Salts, Fluoride Salts)
    • Corrosion (corrosion mechanisms, materials transport)
    • Physical properties (density, viscosity, etc)
    • Chemistry control (fission products chemistry, redox control)
    • Source term release (fission product properties, retention capability)
  • High-temperature Water
    • Stress corrosion cracking
    • Water-fuel interaction
Illustration 3

4. Fuel Materials:

  • Metal Fuels (U-Zr)
    • Interactions with coolant (source term release)
    • Fuel-cladding-Chemical interactions (FCCIs)
    • New fuel alloy development (adding additives for mitigating FCCIs)
    • Pyroprocessing used metal fuels
  • Nitride fuel
    • Interactions with coolant
    • Pyroprocessing used nitride fuels
  • Oxide fuels
    • Interactions with coolant
    • Source term release
    • Novel cladding materials development (MMLC) for accident to tolerant fuels
Illustration 4